Chinese Oriental Rugs

Chinese rug persian design
A Chinese rug in a Persian design from the Henry Gertmenian Company in San Francisco. Chrome dyes and mill-spun wool, excellent workmanship.

It’s simply not true that all Chinese Oriental rugs are low-grade knockoffs. For instance, there are some very high quality…um, knockoffs.

For many years the U.S. did not trade with China. At least one respected American rug dealer caught smuggling Chinese rugs into the U.S. was sent to jail by the U.S. government. After President Nixon went to China, the U.S. in 1973 provisionally accorded China most favored nation trade status, and trade resumed.

At first, access to Chinese rugs was by invitation only. A Chinese governmental agency called ‘the head office’ kept a short list of American Oriental rug firms with whom they were willing to deal. About thirty names were on the list. Peculiarly, the head office encouraged an even smaller group of importers to form a kind of cartel that would have effectively prevented anyone from competing with them. But those who were asked to participate were skeptical about the legality in the United States of such an arrangement, and it did not get off the ground. Foreign buyers conducted business with state corporations and had no direct contact with the manufactories. Buyers selected ready-made stock from government warehouses and had little or no input into what the Chinese produced.

chinese needlepoint
A Chinese needlepoint from Michaelian and Kohlberg in New York.

Strangely, the Chinese government did not seem especially concerned about making a profit. Instead, their interest was in keeping people employed. With that as their goal, they had frequent problems with over-production, and at times they were very motivated sellers. Some American firms are said to have walked away from millions of dollars they owed Chinese state corporations with no consequence to themselves. Government losses did eventually cause the head office system to break down. As branches of the head office lost money, they lost clout, and soon they no longer controlled which foreigners were allowed to do business there.

By about 1990, essentially anyone with enough money could buy rugs in China. Secondly, buyers began to have direct access to manufactories: they now had input into what was produced. They could discuss designs and color, and for the first time China became responsive to the needs of the American consumer. I judge this to be one of the elements that furthered the Oriental rug renaissance. Not very many years later, visionary Americans were commissioning the Chinese to produce some of the best rugs made in the past seventy years.

The very first rugs to come out of China when trade resumed were a handful of mat-sized antique Chinese pieces that, for old rugs, were quite inexpensive. It was said that China misprized native artifacts since they represented her imperial past. The vast majority of the carpets imported from China were the pieces known as 70-line, 90-line and 120-line Chinese rugs. These were made in traditional Peking designs and colors, with thick pile and excellent wool. The rugs were distinctive in having sculpted pile. The dyes were chrome and their pile was machine-spun. Designs were spare and usually consisted of traditional Chinese motifs. They were an exotic addition to the market when they first appeared and were very popular.

chinese rug art nouveau contemporary
This softly colored Chinese rug in a contemporary design suggest Art Nouveau influence.

But in the 1980s, these classic Chinese rugs became the object of price wars among rug dealers, leading to a situation where no one could make a profit on them. Classic Chinese rugs were banished from many dealers’ showrooms by the end of the decade. In the 1990s they had found a niche in some of the large consumer outlets where they are still sold at very low prices, usually in the bottom-end 70-line grade. The design of these and all other Oriental rugs should be visible on their backs.

Do not confuse them with rugs made in China, often also sold at consumer outlet stores, that look much the same but whose backs are covered with cloth. These rugs are not knotted: a machine is used to insert pile into their foundations, and they are not Oriental rugs at all. They are even less expensive than 70-line Chinese rugs, but will not last as long and have no individual character.

I was told this story: There was a British gentleman who owned a suit that he loved dearly. He heard that Chinese tailors were able to copy anything, so, at his first opportunity, he gave it to a Chinese tailor, asking that he make three suits just like it. He was annoyed, though, when a short time later the tailor produced the three new suits. Except for one thing they were perfect. All three were missing the same button. This story may say something about some Chinese rugs. Critics fault them for being too-perfect copies. They are without flaw or irregularity. Their edges and ends are perfectly straight, their colors perfectly consistent. A design figure in one quadrant of the rugs is repeated without fail in the other three. The other side of the coin, though, is that their quality control may be unsurpassed.

chinese rug aubusson french design
A French-style ‘Aubusson’ rug made in China by Megerian. Can this flat-woven rug really be called an Oriental rug?

Paul Gertmenian of the Henry Gertmenian Company in San Francisco was one of the first American rug importers on the scene after trade resumed with China. He attended the second China Rug Fair in 1977, and has imported rugs from China since then. When Paul Gertmenian’s father, Henry Gertmenian, turned 72, Paul left the ministry to join his father’s business. Some other American firms importing rugs from China are much larger, but the Henry Gertmenian Company’s inventory of Chinese rugs represents mainstream Chinese production perfectly. The company, for instance, offers an excellent selection of Chinese Persian rugs — the ones that, in a sense, have replaced classic Chinese rugs.

A name like ‘Chinese Persian’, which is analogous to calling an automobile a Ford Chevy, reflects the confusing merger of styles, countries, and peoples encountered in today’s market. As the hybrid name suggests, they are Chinese rugs made in Persian designs, with elaborate, curvilinear lines. These rugs, with wool pile on cotton foundations, almost always have traditional Persian colors with clear reds. Their wool pile is machine-spun, dyes are chrome. Quality control is excellent, and prices are always very competitive.

When Teddy Sumner of Michaelian and Kohlberg took control of his family’s business as a young man in 1982, he was too naive to be intimidated by the prospect of manufacturing Oriental rugs. After watching European-style needlepoint carpets, which his grandfather Frank Michaelian had produced in China beginning in 1917, sell at auction for giant prices, Teddy Sumner began a new production of needlepoint rugs in China. The rugs began to come onto the market at about the same time — 1985 — that, by my reckoning, our present rug renaissance began to assert itself.

Many of the prototypes his grandfather had developed were still in storage in China forty-five years after they had stopped being made. Mr. Sumner cleaned them and picked up where his grandfather had left off in 1937. They are in French, Italian, and English styles, very formal and elaborate. Michaelian and Kohlberg produced them uncontested in the marketplace until 1990, and produces them to this day.

Chinese tree rug carpet
A Chinese tree carpet from Black Mountain Looms.

In 1990, Teddy Sumner and George Jevremovic of Woven Legends cast lots together in a new business called Black Mountain Looms. While George Jevremovic concentrated on a joint production in Turkey, Teddy Sumner began to gear up in China for a production of natural-dyed, hand-spun rugs and carpets that became known as Little River. Natural dyeing, at least on a commercial scale, was unknown in China at the time, so Black Mountain Looms shipped vegetal dyes from Turkey to China where Mr. Sumner and Mr. Jevremovic set up a workshop and taught Chinese dyers to use them. To teach the Chinese how to spin wool by hand, Black Mountain Looms brought an experienced spinner from Boulder, Colorado who spent ten days training Chinese craftspeople in the technique.

In discussing Chinese spinners and weavers, Mr. Sumner mentioned the stereotype about Chinese craftspeople suggested by the story about the three suits—the stereotype, of course, being that Chinese craftspeople are capable but unimaginative. Teddy Sumner disagrees. He believes instead that they are cooperative and happy to please and, he adds, are extraordinarily skilled and flexible. For instance, weavers working for Black Mountain Looms are able to tie both the Persian and Turkish knots. I have never heard before of weavers able to do that.

China has a unique system of quantifying the fineness of a rug’s weave. It is expressed in terms of the number of warp threads strung on a loom in one running foot. For instance, a 120-line rug will have 120 pairs of warps lying side by side on the loom in one running foot. To convert this figure to knots per square inch—the standard way of expressing fineness of weave in the U.S.—divide 120 by 12 (inches) and you have 10 pairs of warp threads in one inch, on which 10 knots will be tied. Chinese rugs have a ‘square knot count’, meaning that, if ten knots are tied vertically in one inch, ten will also be tied horizontally. So, in our example of a 120-line rug, the knots in one inch are 10 times 10, or 100 knots per square inch. If you are like me, you will forget that formula at least fifty times.

feregan sarouk chinese rug
A Little River chinese rug from Black Mountain Looms. Hand-spun wool and vegetal dyes. The design is from a 19th century Feregan Sarouk Persian rug.

The flagship rugs of Black Mountain Looms were known as Little River, and they are personal favorites of mine. They recreate some of the most desirable carpets ever woven: late 19th-century Ferahan Sarouks, antique Bijars, old Tabriz carpets, antique Serapis, and others. My wife and I collected them just as we had collected antique rugs for many years. Now the partnership behind Black Mountain Looms has broken up and the first generation of Little River carpets is no longer being produced — possibly making them more collectible than before. (Some very good pieces can still be found.) On his own, Teddy Sumner now makes a new generation of Little River carpets that are contemporary in design.

Chinese silk rugs are among the most lavish Oriental rugs in the market. I have counted 2500 knots in one square inch of a silk Chinese rug! (Counting them may not have taken as long as you might imagine. To measure knots per square inch, we count knots in an inch running horizontally and in an inch running lengthwise and multiply them. Of course.) Reliable people have told me that one very small silk rug in China contains 7000 knots per square inch and is priced at some ungodly sum like $100,000. Rugs as fine as the finest silk Chinese rugs allow for the most astonishing shading and detail. I don’t believe that anyone can fail to be impressed by them. But not all are as fine as 2500 knots per square inch. Chinese silks are made in a number of knot-counts, starting at about 250. Only Hereke silks from Turkey can compare with the finest Chinese silk rugs in this respect, and Herekes cost far more.

chinese silk oriental rug
Chinese silk Oriental rug. Chinese silks are the real bargain in the silk-rug market. Henry Gertmenian Co, San Francisco.

Megerian Brothers Oriental Rugs from New York City make among the best European-style carpets, kilims, and tapestries. These most formal looking of all rugs are lavish in design and are exquisitely made.

In about 1995, we began to see inexpensive kilims from China, woven in Caucasian and south Persian designs. They were amazingly cheap, but looked it. Every year they have improved, and now they are both inexpensive and very good.

Lately I have seen a small number of Chinese-made carpets woven with Turkish knots. I had thought that all Chinese rugs were made with either the Persian, Tibetan, or Mongolian knot, so I was surprised. But I was astonished to find that each knot has four tufts of wool forming
the pile instead of the usual two. I had never seen this before. Apparently weavers double the yarn before they tie it to the foundation, presumably to get a very dense surface with a minimum number of knots.

I was puzzled by their exact provenance for a day or two, but, by luck, I met Wenjun Cheng. Mr. Cheng was visiting from China where he is an agent or broker in the carpet industry. He was originally assigned the job by the Chinese government, but as the structure of the Chinese economy changed, he was allowed to go into business for himself. As an agent, his business is to represent American and European importers. He matches their needs with appropriate producers and makes sure that the quality of the carpets is up to specifications. Mr. Cheng was as surprised as I was to see the four-tufted knots, but he was familiar with Chinese rugs with Turkish knots. He believes that they were made in the town of Hetian in Sinkiang Province, in the far west of China. With the possible exception of Hetian, Wenjun Cheng knows of no center in China capable of producing carpets in a full range of vegetal dyes. He thinks that one or two natural dyes may be used here and there in China, but evidently there is no widespread use. Hand spinning, however, is ‘no problem’.

An American rugmaker I spoke with personally watched a Turkish dealer buy $500,000 of fine silk Chinese rugs. It was clear to him that they would be sent to Turkey and sold as silk Herekes. Others have reported to me that they have seen fine wool and silk rugs in Persian designs — Nains in particular — made in China expressly to be sold in Iran as Persian rugs. This says much about the quality of Chinese rugs and their relatively low prices. It is also a warning to be on your guard.


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    jereth carpenter August 16, 2008

    my mother and father were in japan for 28 yrs they purchased a ten sen? what type of rug is that? please help.

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    Richard August 16, 2008

    My guess is you’re talking about a Chinese carpet from the city of Tientsin (sometimes called Tianjin). If you send me a photo I’d be happy to take a look.

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    Ed August 23, 2008

    “Hetian” = Khotan

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    wanda August 27, 2008

    I have a 9X12 Chinese silk rug with a runner. The color is orange with a roe in the center and in the corners. I have a certificate of authentication from the auction dealer where I bought it at. However, I don’t remember any more info. I want to sell both, but I have no idea of the value. Coud you help me? I could send pictures.

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    admin September 3, 2008

    Please send pictures to the Richard at the email shown above.

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    Veronica September 27, 2008

    Anyone know where I can take a class in Chinese Sculpted carpet-making? Anywhere in the NY area.

  7. generic user icon September 29, 2008

    I have been searching for a 100@ wool rug 9×12 approx.. Chinese made with chinese “designs” – dragons etc. If there is any choice, I would like a cream background with predominent blue/royal blue sculptures.

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    Cathy October 21, 2008

    I have a client who is selling her 9X11 Chinese pink floral on light blue & Ivory back round area rug. Any idea on how much it’s worth?

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    MD Blanchard December 28, 2008

    My mother in law has an oriental rug that was purchased in Hong Kong in the early 1900’s by her in laws. As well as some silk woven framed pieces of art. Anyway it has traditional design(not dragons) Pagoda’s/Cherry blossoms,branches, cream background with blues/pinks. The fringe is mostly gone ,we are having it cleaned/fringe added. Will the new fringe diminish the value?

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    Richard December 29, 2008

    If the fringe is hand sewed to the piece it should be fine. If it is machine sewed there is the possibility that it could damage the piece and reduce the value.

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    elvis February 9, 2009

    Dear Sir/Madam,
    My name is Elvis Ablimit and I am a carpet seller and designer in Kashgar, in far west China. I have been sourcing ancient Khotan carpets around Xinjiang for the past 17 years and selling them to western tourists. My experience in this area has earned me the reputation as one of the most knowledgeable sellers of Khotan carpets in China. My expertise are also noted in the travelling guide “Lonely Planet.” For years, westerners with a good knowledge of quality carpets have been turning to me to obtain the best items available in Xinjiang. Traditionally my main business has been selling genuine antique carpets, however due to the recent increased trade into Pakistan, they are getting harder and harder to find. Because of this, my business has now turned to copy-making rugs in the antique style. The carpets are made using the best artistic designs, and the craftmanship is superb. Many of the Khotan designs currently available throughout the world are made in Afghanistan, and are of poor quality: both in design and craftmanship. I can assure you my carpets are genuine, high-value remakes featuring flawless designs. You can see my work at I’m looking to expand my selling base overseas and am wondering if you would be interested in any of my carpets. Also, if you have a particular Khotan design you would like made I am only to happy to assist. I speak good english, so if you would prefer to discuss any of these matters over the phone please do not hesitate to contact me. I look forward to hearing from you,
    Yours sincerley

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    Tony Costa March 31, 2009

    What about the Chinese rugs of the 1920’s and 1930’s. The “Nichols” and “Peking” and other art deco rugs of the period?
    No discussion there?

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    Tony Costa April 10, 2009

    I’ll try to start it off.
    I have a question about the tianjin Chinese carpets of the early 1900’s like the Nichols art deco. These beautiful period pieces are collectors items of sorts and for my taste quite nice. My family has a few originals from the 1920’s and 1930’s when quite a few seemed to have been imported into Hawaii and the US back in the day. I do believe Walter Nichol himself also had some roots here or were sold here by a close friend of his. At any rate, my question is, are these art deco style rugs currently being re-produced to simulate the old Nichols and other Tianjin carpets?

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    Sally April 23, 2009

    I have a 9′ x 14′ rug that my grandmother brought back from china in the early 1930’s. The background is tan and it has three medallions on it which are black. The other colors are green and cream which are found on the border of the run. I need to value this rug and can not find anything like it. I has been well “loved”.
    Any ideas where I might find compariable rugs?
    Thank you.

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    John Milella September 3, 2009

    I have a rug I believe to be of chinese origin, purchased by my father in the 1930’s which was purchased used, is it possible that some rugs were signed by the weaver in the body of the rug. A pictur can be seen at any information about the importance of a signed rug would be appreciated.

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    Richard September 12, 2009

    I’d be happy to take a look. You can send photos to the above address.

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    Denny Mitchell October 28, 2009

    Where can I find art deco Chinese rugs in the Bay area or any place in the USA or China?

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    Kenneth Horne November 17, 2009

    We have a Chinese Art Deco rug 14’x10′. It is emerald green with a small floral pattern in each corner. It is sculpted and in fine condition. It is very thick wool and hand knotted.
    Does anyone have a clue about this item?

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    Sydney Hampton April 24, 2010

    I am looking for a black approx 5×8 rug with oriental beige writing. This design no longer seems to be available. Do you have it or know where it can be obtained?

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    John Neyman March 25, 2011

    I am loking for any info on a old woolrug 12×9 hand made by Ching Shan in Hong Kong

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    Richard lee June 6, 2011

    I am very happy to read this blog. Since I am familiar with Chinese rugs and sell Chinese silk rugs I would like to share my knowledge with you.
    Nomadic people lived in the North Western of China made carpets hands of years ago to keep warmth for their tents. They even tribute rugs to Chinese emperors in ancient times. But carpets are not popular among the Han Chinese people. In the earlier times of 1900 westerners established some carpet factories in Beijing, Tianjin, and Baotou. But the output was small. Carpet industry was very small before 1980s last century. Because the war between Iraq and Iran lasted for a few years China caught this good opportunity to develop this industry and exported hand-made rugs to western world. American’s embargo policy to Iran really affected Iranian carpet industry but gave China the good opportunity. In 1980s a lot of carpet factories were established in China. China was rich of labor and the labor cost was low. Most carpets were woolen rugs. Iranian rugs and Turkish rugs were very famous in western world. Chinese craftsmen absorbed their techniques and copied their designs to make Persian rugs and Turkish rugs to export. China produced a lot of silk so silk material was used in carpet weaving industry. Most silk rugs were produced in Henan, Sichuan, Shan’xi province. Carpet factories in Beijing and Tianjin produced woolen rugs with traditional Chinese designs, such as dragon, phoenix, peony flower, and Chinese symbols. In Zhejiang ,Jiangsu, and Shanghai they produced spun silk rugs with 120lines. Those rugs are carved to make the patterns stand out.
    For Persian design silk rugs produced in 1980s and 1990s were very good quality.
    I remembered there were many factories in my hometown. A lot of women even made silk carpets at home for carpet factories. My mom also made silk rug at home. She worked very hard. She could make one piece of silk rug with standard 300lines quality in one year. She worked into the deep night.
    The silk rugs were exported to foreign countries and very few Chinese purchased them. In the early of 1990s the market was very bad and a lot of silk carpet factories were closed down and became bankrupt. After 1995 the quality of the silk carpets became worse and worse. People start to make lower quality silk rugs. Some weavers even used spun silk and artificial silk to make carpets in order to lower the cost. This bad circulation continues on. After 2000 many weavers stopped making carpets because they could make more money than weaving silk carpets. 95% of the carpet factories closed. Only in a few counties the women still weaved carpets at home.
    Actually Chinese weavers didn’t make good money from this business. Most carpet dealers from foreign countries made good money. Turkish and Iranian importers purchased silk rugs from China and resold. The dealers didn’t tell the customers those silk rugs were made in China. They sold them as Turkish or Iranian carpets. Those carpets also were weaved with the signatures. When the silk carpets were shipped to the dealers they even attached the rubber stripes under the edge of the silk carpets and their company labels. For most buyers they didn’t know those silk carpets were made in China. They paid high price when purchasing.

    Iranian and Turkish rugs are famous especially antique rugs are valuable. Chinese weavers pushed this art to its summit. Usually the top quality silk rugs made in Iranian have around 450-600knotts per square inch. Few of them have around 1000knotts per square inch. While in China we produced much higher knot count silk rugs with real tied knot workmanship. We even produced 1100-1700knots per square inch quality silk rugs and some small sized silk rugs even have2500, 3400, 4400, and 6900Knots per square inch. Actually these top quality small silk rugs are much finer than real Hereke silk rugs. However not many people know the real story behind.
    Why did Chinese silk rug weaving industry collapse?
    We have our own reason. The trading companies did cut-throat competition when doing business with foreigners. The exporting profits became so small. Some trading companies or factories were cheated by foreign importing companies and became bankrupt. Some factories lowered the quality when making silk carpets in order to save the cost. They even used half silk half spun silk or art silk. The labor cost is increasing soon, the silk material price is also going up, and the Chinese currency becomes stronger and stronger. The international market for silk carpets is not good. All these factors made this industry become weak.
    A lot of artificial silk carpets or spun silk carpets were sold to Middle East and Turkey and they were sold to the tourists at high price. Those bad quality rugs damaged the reputation of Chinese silk rugs. Actually high quality silk rugs were sold by the dealers in foreign countries were claimed being made in Turkey or Iran that gave a wrong sense that China didn’t produce high quality silk rugs. Some artificial silk rugs were bought by the people and when they brought home they found they were cheated. The rug experts told them that those rugs were Chinese copies. So some people believed that China only produced low quality copied Persian or Turkish rugs.
    China still makes a small quantity of very high quality silk rugs but the end buyers don’t know that. Genuine silk rugs with high quality are very few now because it is difficult to make and the cost is high. When most carpets with low quality were made it is hard to sell the real high quality silk rugs because most buyers didn’t really know the quality difference. They only paid attention to the design, color, and the price.
    A lot of people don’t know how hard it is to make high quality silk rugs. Suppose real 460 knots count per square inch quality silk rugs, per person can make 2 square feet per month. They must work 10 hours per day. If you use new workmanship they can make 5-6 square feet per month. It will use around 0.35-0.4kg silk material per square foot. The piles will be sheared again when the silk rug was finished. So some silk will be wasted. The finest pure silk will cost around 65USD per kg today in china. For the spun silk it just costs 15-20USD per kg. For artificial silk it only costs 6USD per kg.
    We still produce some high quality genuine silk rugs.

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    Richard June 9, 2011

    Thank you for that informative post.

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    Robert rosselli December 1, 2011

    Have 3 Chinese wool ,brand new ,70 knot ,roughly 6-9,8-10&runner.great condition,what would be fair price to sell. ThNk you

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    gary schwartz January 28, 2012

    In 1970, my dad somehow got into China and brought back a 90 knot super chinese 8′ x 10′ rug.It is sculpted and has the typical rose pattern design with many borders and an oval medallion in the center. I am curious as to the value of such a rug.

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    admin January 29, 2012

    Hi Gary, please email a photo of your rug to if you havent’ already. A member of our staff will get to it as soon as possible. (We get a TON of these emails, so please be patient!)

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    Edward Vitt April 2, 2012

    A friend of mine gifted some Chinese rugs that belonged to his father who bought them while stationed in China in WW-2, he was one of the Flying Tiger’s. What would be base value of such rugs and is it proper to hang one on a wall.

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    Donna July 23, 2012

    Hello,I purchased this 8X12 ft chinese wool rug brand new in 1982 paid $5000.
    Its 1 inch thick ,so heavy it can hardly be lifted. Coloring is light beige mushroom background.Recently the rug has been ruined with bright yellow urine stains that did not remove.Is it possible to dye this rug a dark blue or red to conceal the bright yellow stains, How would I go about dying it myself, I am ready to throw it out

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    peter October 29, 2012

    I have an 8×10 chinese silk wool carpet in excellent condition from the 1920’s that i want to sell. some of the floral patterens are unfinished and I have been told that was because the chinese govt. stopped the children from making these. i am in vancouver.

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    Juanita November 27, 2012

    I want to sell 9×12 Chinese rug open field
    beige background-blue border-blue&pink flowers
    label on back 05916 0162

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    Ben February 20, 2013

    I need a name of a designer who made these types of rugs or specialises in making them to do for my GCSE textile exam?

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    Mary B February 26, 2013

    Thank you so much for the history of Chinese rugs from the 1980’s. My parents in 1980 bought two rugs and two runners of 90 line. I have the receipts and certificates of authenticity. I have now inherited the rugs and have taken them for an extensive cleaning. I know that they may not be worth the $850. but to me they are the memory of my parents so excited to own something so special.

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    Alberta Ulmer July 16, 2013

    I love Nichols Chinese rugs, especially the earlier ones. They seem to have more design and fabulous colors. Sadly, I can’t afford those in good condition.

    I’ll take a raggedy Nichols rug with bare spots as long as the color and design is good and it is a lot less expensive than those well preserved.

    Any suggestions where I can find any?

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    rita bush February 13, 2014

    I have a Chinese(Tien-Tsin) rug hand woven in China prior to World War II. The design is adapted from an Aubusson(french Pattern) with ablue ground and blue border and sculptured. Would like to know the value.

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    maureen duffy February 23, 2014

    I have a rug think it is silk. A small portion is solid. How would I clean it. The tag is all in Chinese . The pattern is dragons and fish. A vibrant blue and orange and cream. Could it worth any thing

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    Rhoy Delling February 6, 2015

    I have a 10 x 14 China made rug of floral patterns and a medallion in the middle. the border is trimmed in Tan and main body is blue. One tag is in Chinese and I don’t know what it means. Allegedly the rug came from Hong Kong back during prohibition (1960s) or sooner. The line count is 85. Pictures available. I would like to sell it but don’t know what it is worth.

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    Diane de Kertanguy June 21, 2015

    Wow! What an informative site! Thank you so much for compiling so much information here. Thanks, also, to Richard Lee.

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    Wedja December 18, 2015

    用Hofstadter的話 Chinese Room更接近是對人工智慧的宗教式反駁 而非建基于精巧有說服力的哲學論證 整個中文房論證建基的 其實只是一種關于 syntax secnitams understanding 等概念粗糙的 未經分析的日常直覺 為什麽Chinese Room不能理解 我們為什麽不能采取系統回複 systems reply 的立場 包括房中人 規則書 房間本身 房裏中文字符的 整個系統 其實是理解中文的 如果人們對此有懷疑 那應該回想一下 整個Chinese Room思考實驗的設定本身到底有多麽的荒唐

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    Renee Clark January 19, 2016

    I would like to know the value of this Zhejiang Chinese silk rug. It is 2’x 4′ in excellent condition. Peony & phoenix brand, blue & cream in color. It was displayed as a wall hanging. I believe it was purchased before 1990.